How do I know if a partition is ext2, ext3, or ext4?

  • I just formatted stuff. One disk I format as ext2. The other I want to format as ext4. I want to test how they perform.

    Now, how do I know the kind of file system in a partition?

    Out of curiosity, what are you trying to test? Journal vs. no journal? For the record, you can operate ext4 in no-journal mode, and still benefit from all the other new features.

  • How do I tell what sort of data (what data format) is in a file?
    → Use the file utility.

    Here, you want to know the format of data in a device file, so you need to pass the -s flag to tell file not just to say that it's a device file but look at the content. Sometimes you'll need the -L flag as well, if the device file name is a symbolic link. You'll see output like this:

    # file -sL /dev/sd*
    /dev/sda1: Linux rev 1.0 ext4 filesystem data, UUID=63fa0104-4aab-4dc8-a50d-e2c1bf0fb188 (extents) (large files) (huge files)
    /dev/sdb1: Linux rev 1.0 ext2 filesystem data, UUID=b3c82023-78e1-4ad4-b6e0-62355b272166
    /dev/sdb2: Linux/i386 swap file (new style), version 1 (4K pages), size 4194303 pages, no label, UUID=3f64308c-19db-4da5-a9a0-db4d7defb80f
    

    Given this sample output, the first disk has one partition and the second disk has two partitions. /dev/sda1 is an ext4 filesystem, /dev/sdb1 is an ext2 filesystem, and /dev/sdb2 is some swap space (about 4GB).

    You must run this command as root, because ordinary users may not read disk partitions directly: if needed, add sudo in front.

    When entering `$ sudo file /dev/sda1`, I get `/dev/sda1: block special`

    @heinrich5991 “you need to pass the -s flag …”. I show the command `file -s /dev/sd*` − with `sudo` in front, that's `sudo file -s /dev/sd*`.

    Oh sorry, I overlooked that. :(

    doesn't work for LVM stuff: parted -l seems to work better

    @TiloBunt It works for LVM as well. The device name will be `/dev/VOLUMEGROUP/LOGICALVOLUME` or `/dev/mapper/VOLUMEGROUP-LOGICALVOLUME` instead of `/dev/sdLETTERDIGIT`.

    tried that `file -s /dev/mapper/` but get `symbolic link to `../dm-0'` same for `file -s /dev/vg_devccsrv11/*`

    @TiloBunt Make that `file -sL /dev/mapper/foo-bar`, with the `-L` flag to dereference the symlink.

    I've been using this technique for years. But today it failed because the unformatted EBS volume happens to match the signature of a DOS executable:`$ sudo file -s /dev/xvdm /dev/xvdm: DOS executable (COM)`

    @rectalogic `file` guesses, and sometimes it can guess wrong. When you know what kind of file you're looking at (e.g. you know that it's a filesystem image) it works reasonably well. When it's open-ended, such as in your case with a volume that contained “random” garbage, there can be false positives. COM executables don't actually have any structure, so there `file` has both many false positives and many false negatives.

    I've switched to using `blkid -o value -s TYPE /dev/xvdm` - it exits with 2 if the device is unformatted, otherwise prints the filesystem, and works with LUKS encrypted filesystems.

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Content dated before 6/26/2020 9:53 AM