su options - running command as another user

  • I was wondering how to run a command as another user from a script.

    I have the script's owner set as root. I also have the following command being run within the script to run the command as the hudson user:

    su -c command hudson
    

    Is this the correct syntax?

    For other googlers: some users might have this ability disabled on purpose. You can run `sudo cat /etc/passwd | grep user-abc`. If you see something like this: `user-abc:x:994:994::/home/user-abc:/bin/false` then it won't work. That's because the last part "`/bin/false`" means that there is no shell for that user.

  • Oli

    Oli Correct answer

    10 years ago

    Yes. Here's the --help:

    $ su --help
    Usage: su [options] [LOGIN]
    
    Options:
      -c, --command COMMAND         pass COMMAND to the invoked shell
      -h, --help                    display this help message and exit
      -, -l, --login                make the shell a login shell
      -m, -p,
      --preserve-environment        do not reset environment variables, and
                                    keep the same shell
      -s, --shell SHELL             use SHELL instead of the default in passwd
    

    And some testing (I used sudo as I don't know the password for the nobody account)

    $ sudo su -c whoami nobody
    [sudo] password for oli: 
    nobody
    

    When your command takes arguments you need to quote it. If you don't, strange things will occur. Here I am —as root— trying to create a directory in /home/oli (as oli) without quoting the full command:

    # su -c mkdir /home/oli/java oli
    No passwd entry for user '/home/oli/java'
    

    It's only read mkdir as the value for the -c flag and it's trying to use /home/oli/java as the username. If we quote it, it just works:

    # su -c "mkdir /home/oli/java" oli
    # stat /home/oli/java
      File: ‘/home/oli/java’
      Size: 4096        Blocks: 8          IO Block: 4096   directory
    Device: 811h/2065d  Inode: 5817025     Links: 2
    Access: (0775/drwxrwxr-x)  Uid: ( 1000/     oli)   Gid: ( 1000/     oli)
    Access: 2016-02-16 10:49:15.467375905 +0000
    Modify: 2016-02-16 10:49:15.467375905 +0000
    Change: 2016-02-16 10:49:15.467375905 +0000
     Birth: -
    

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Content dated before 6/26/2020 9:53 AM