Is it safe to put hot food in the fridge?
I heard that putting really warm food in the fridge right after cooking it is not the right thing to do. It might cause bacterial growth? Is this true?
Hot or warm food will briefly warm up the air and therefore to some degree the food already in fridge, especially items immediately near it. Cycling temperatures does not help fresh food quality or life. Modern fan forced fridges may suffer this problem less.
It is very power inefficient to do this. Just let it cool on the bench until it reaches a cooler temperature and then place it in the refrigerator. Use any of the well-documented and appropriate techniques to cool food quickly and safely if it is going to longer than 2 hours to cool.
I take issue with your second suggestion; for many foods it's not safe to let it "cool on the bench". Typically if you need to cool a really *hot* food before putting in the fridge, then you do as GUI Junkie suggests - submerge the container in an ice-water bath. And if the food is in an untempered glass or aluminum container that might crack or warp, then transfer it to a stable container first.
Sure, cooling food faster is sometimes better, but there is a **huge** energy cost to doing this regularly, and what difference does it make anyway? Try it yourself, next time you do a big cook, put half on the bench to cool (labelled A), the other half on an empty freezer shelf (labelled B). Some months latter serve a portion of each to your family and see who can spot the difference?
What kind of test is that? Not only are we talking about refrigeration, not freezing, but taste tests have nothing to do with food safety. Some foods really need to be cooled quickly. Leaving your homemade stock to cool for an hour on the countertop is inviting disaster.
In the commercial kitchen there are special coolers and they are really expensive. Have you heard of the heat-chain - cool-chain? A food item should be kept cold. When you cook it, you should heat it fast, then if you should maintain the food warm, it should be at a sufficiently hot temperature, or if you cool it down, it should be cooled down fast. Within two hours below 4ºC (if I'm correct).
If you simmer a liquid up for at least ten minutes how much live bacteria is left? Leave it to cool in the cooking container with the lid on. Don't leave it out overnight, just long enough to come down to near room temperature
"Long enough to come down to near room temperature" can be a substantial amount of time depending on what you are cooling, and all throughout that time your food is in the danger zone. *Some* foods are certainly OK to cool this way, especially if they don't contain meat or dairy products, but one shouldn't rely on generalities when talking about **food safety**. The fact of the matter is that you've recommended a practice that is *less safe* (albeit more energy-efficient) than the practice you are recommending against. Worse, you're arguing about it instead of making a simple edit.
@Aaronut, if your stock can't survive a couple of hours at room temperature, there's something wrong with it.
@Marti: Sure, it's not going to go bad within a few hours. But you understand that it is cumulative, right? Stock that might have lasted 3 days in the fridge might only last 2 days if you left it sitting out at room temperature.
@Aaronut I think there is a lack of science here. "..especially if they don't contain meat or dairy products.." is an old wives tale, all "wet" food spoils, or more often is contaminated. It's not the meat dish that kills you, it's the splashes of meat juices growing bacteria on the salad greens. Freshly cooked food in closed containers should be much more sterile than raw food. And a couple of hours on the bench cooling will therefore not be a health risk
The only lack of science here is your own. A pot of chicken stock is clearly going to be harbouring more bacteria than a single lettuce leaf that happened to get a splash of meat juice. And freshly cooked food is *more* sterile but not *totally* sterile. Leaving food out at room temperature for several hours *and then refrigerating it for several more days* is simply careless, and dangerous.
So there is more bacteria in cooked stock than on uncooked vegetable matter with potential kitchen contaminants? What do you put in you stock, road kill?
In recent history medical laboratory technicians used to make their own agar with blood or meat stock mix to grow bacteria. You poured the agar plates and covered them with their glass lids, and let them cool on the bench. When at room temperature you put them in the fridge. They where spotless for more than a week!
An agar plate is not a pot of stock. Such a small quantity does not take very long to come down to room temperature. If you're going to divide your hot food into small portions that can be cooled within a few minutes, then by all means, cool it for a few minutes on the counter top. As I pointed out in my answer, though, the concerns here are when dealing with a single large quantity of food, and a full pot of stock will take quite a bit more than a few minutes to cool this way. So your point, while interesting, is not actually relevant.
As for your previous question: Yes, there is more bacteria in cooked stock, especially when it's been left out. Even if you killed every single bacteria during the cooking process (which is not the case), it can become contaminated again just as easily as the vegetables, and unlike vegetables, stock sitting around at room temperature (or worse, 60° C or so) is quite literally a breeding ground for bacteria. Unless you're in the habit of vigorously rubbing your broccoli with raw chicken, it's a lot safer than stock.
This is a myth left over from the days of iceboxes. Go to any official food safety resource online (including USDA, FDA, etc.), and you will find they are all in agreement: it's perfectly safe to put hot food in your refrigerator. In fact, unless you are using some more direct cooling method (like putting your food in an ice bath), waiting to refrigerate your food is often a health hazard.
See, for example, consumer recommendations at the FDA ("Despite what some people believe, putting hot food in the refrigerator doesn't harm the appliance."), FDA ("A lot of people think it will harm their refrigerator to put hot food inside--it's not true. It won't harm your refrigerator and it will keep your food--and you--safe."), USDA ("Hot food can be placed directly in the refrigerator or it can be rapidly chilled in an ice or cold water bath before refrigerating.") Similar advice can be found at other food safety sources: Washington State Department of Health (Under "Food Safety Myths": "FACT: Hot food can be placed in the refrigerator."), from the Partnership for Food Safety Education (Again, under a list of "myths": "Fact: Hot foods can be placed directly in the refrigerator."), from the Alaska Food Safety and Sanitation Program ("Myth #10 - 'I can't put hot food into the refrigerator. The food will spoil if I do.' -- The food will spoil if it is not quickly cooled! The leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States is improper cooling, such as leaving cooked foods at room temperature..."), the Florida Department of Health (again, from a "myths" list: "Hot food can be placed directly in the refrigerator if you divide large quantities into small, shallow containers."), etc., etc., etc. These are just a few links I found in the first couple pages of a search; there are obviously many more.
(IMPORTANT NOTE: Particular precautions should be taken for large quantities of food; see below for details.)
There are three common objections: (1) it will "overwork" the fridge, (2) it will heat up other food in the fridge to unsafe temperatures and cause it to spoil, and (3) somehow, the uneven cooling of the hot food in the container will cause it to spoil.
Let's take these each in turn.
(1) It will "overwork" the fridge -- False in most cases.
Lots of people worry about putting a quart or two of hot food in their fridge, but they wouldn't think anything of filling their fridges with multiple gallons of room temperature drinks (for example) to chill them, even if it might require the same amount of energy to cool. Anything that is above the temperature of the fridge will require energy to cool.
Now, if you plan on putting a very large amount of hot food into a small fridge all at the same time, it might strain the fridge. If you do it once in a while? Probably not an issue in a modern fridge, as long as it's not excessive. If you plan to do that on a regular basis, you should consider using ice baths or other cooling methods to pre-chill the food before putting it in the fridge.
It will cost more energy to cool hot foods in the fridge. If you are looking for the most energy-efficient method, it is probably to use a cold tap water bath, replacing the water a few times to bring down the temperature as fast as possible to room temperature. Then refrigerate. (Chilling with ice water is safer and faster, but it's not the most energy efficient, if that's your concern.)
Also, in most cases it probably makes sense to wait until the food actually gets into the "Danger Zone" (below 140F or so) before refrigerating; there's little safety benefit in putting a boiling pot directly into the fridge. Unless you're monitoring the temperature of your cooling food, though, it still is safest to move it to the fridge as soon as you can.
(2) It will heat up other food in the fridge to unsafe temperatures and cause it to spoil -- False in almost all cases.
This is the real myth that comes from the icebox theory. In an old icebox, you just had a block of ice, and no air circulation. If you put something hot in there, the ice would melt, the food wouldn't even get cool, and everything else would warm up and spoil.
That just doesn't happen in a modern fridge (as can be found out on reputable food safety websites, such as mentioned above). I've actually tested it myself. I once put a gallon of very hot soup in the fridge just to see what happened. I checked the fridge every 30 minutes or so by measuring surface temperatures of other foods with an infrared thermometer. My fridge is generally around 35-36F. There was one item which was almost touching the metal pot that maybe reached 44 or 45F for a short time -- above ideal refrigeration temperatures, but hardly enough to cause a lot of spoilage. All other items in the fridge -- even many on the same shelf -- stayed within a few degrees of the refrigerator temperature, 40F at the most.
And this wasn't in some fancy fridge: it was actually at least 10 years old and a rather cheap model. The air circulation is enough to keep most other foods cool, unless you're actually touching them to the hot container. The radiative heat coming off the hot container will raise stuff around it by a couple degrees for a couple hours, but in a fridge kept at a proper low temperature, this should not be an issue at all.
If you have a very old fridge that doesn't work properly, or some weird new fridge that is super energy-efficient and doesn't cool properly, you might have an issue. But for anyone with a normal modern fridge, this is not an issue.
EDIT: Another question was posed in response to my comment here, and I documented there a more detailed experiment I carried out by placing a gallon of boiling water directly into my home refrigerator (admittedly a newer model than in the last experiment). My results, in summary, were that even food items placed within a couple inches on the same shelf of the pot of boiling water were only heated by 3-4 degrees for a few hours. Other items in the fridge (on other shelves, etc.) barely changed temperature, moving maybe a degree or two at most. These temperature fluctuations might be a minor concern around highly perishable foods like raw meats, but it is probably common sense to keep raw meat away from hot food and warm food in general. Other items in a well-functioning modern refrigerator are unlikely to be negatively affected. (If you don't believe me, here's another documented similar experiment with a large hot cheesecake put directly into the fridge from the oven.)
(3) The uneven cooling of the hot food in the container will cause it to spoil -- Certainly false (compared to room temperature cooling).
In fact, leaving your container out on the counter at room temperature has a much, much, much higher probability of causing faster spoilage. With some dishes, it is actually quite irresponsible. There's a common belief that cooked food is "sterile," and by leaving it out with the lid on, it won't get contaminated. But there are a lot of microbes that produce spores which can even survive boiling or near-boiling temperatures. Many of them are kept at bay by competing with other microbes during the initial cooking phase, but after cooking, all that's usually left are nasty spores.
Rice, for example, is commonly infected with Bacillus cereus, which forms spores that aren't destroyed during normal rice cooking. Leave a rice dish out on the counter for too long, and you'll start growing a lot of that stuff, which can produce persistent toxins that won't be destroyed during reheating. This sort of thing is actually the cause of a lot of food poisoning from eating things like leftover Chinese food: if the rice was cooked earlier and not held above 140F, and then was allowed to sit in a take-out container for many hours, it could grow a lot of toxins. It's often more likely to get food poisoning from the leftover rice than from a lot of other dishes that might seem more "dangerous."
Rice and Bacillus cereus are just one example. You really want to get food down to refrigerator temperatures as quickly as possible after cooking. Don't just leave it on the counter.
If you have a large quantity of hot food, break it down into small containers, and then refrigerate (not all stacked together -- let air circulate around them). Or put your pot into an ice bath or cold water bath. Stirring periodically in an ice bath will make it cool even faster.
It's true that in a large pot of chili or something, the temperature of the center of the food will go down much more slowly and potentially could allow bacterial growth compared to outer layers. That's the reason that large pots of food should be broken down into small containers. But note that leaving a pot of chili out on the counter will make this bacterial growth even worse than if it is refrigerated immediately.
Even if you don't do any of these things and leave all the hot food in one large pot, it's still a safer strategy to put it directly into the fridge rather than leave it out on the counter at room temperature.
(Edit -- PLEASE NOTE: For large quantities of hot food, I am NOT advocating the practice of placing a large container in the refrigerator. It may take WAY too long for the large pot to cool completely, and the food in the large container may be unsafe to eat. Either break it down into smaller containers or use an ice bath. However, it's still unlikely to harm the food in the fridge or the fridge itself unless it's in direct contact with the hot container. And it's still safer than leaving the food on the counter to cool.)
Your claim that government agencies all make that claim would be more convincing if you linked to their actual claims.
@Joe - Sorry, here ya go -- FDA: "Despite what some people believe, putting hot food in the refrigerator doesn't harm the appliance." USDA: "Hot food can be placed directly in the refrigerator or it can be rapidly chilled in an ice or cold water bath before refrigerating." These claims are repeated a least a dozen times on those sites. If you have a major reputable food safety website that contradicts these sorts of claims, I would be interested in seeing it.
Your FDA link mentions that it's okay for the appliance, but says nothing about the food. That's also in the 'consumer' section, not the 2009 Food Code, which mentions 'rapid cooling equipment', but not fridges specifically ... which is why I asked for your source. Your FDA link is for leftovers, and the USDA link specifically mentions that a large pots of soup or stew should be broken down (suggesting that it *should not* go directly into the fridge.
@Joe - whether the practice could harm the appliance is actually part of the question I was answering. And look, that was just the first FDA link that came up in a search--there are others, for example: "A lot of people think it will harm their refrigerator to put hot food inside--it's not true. It won't harm your refrigerator and it will keep your food--and you--safe."
@Joe - Also, if you read my answer, I specifically say that **I do not advocate the practice of putting large pots of hot food in the fridge.** I'm saying that: (1) it won't harm the appliance, (2) it won't harm the rest of the food in the fridge, and (3) even if you do it, it's safer than the alternative that most folklore says you should do, which is to leave it out on the counter to cool. I'm also noting that if you do break down the food properly into smaller containers, it's safer to put it in the fridge with proper air circulation, rather than leaving it out as some people think.
Please note that the question mentions nothing about large quantities of food. It just asks whether it's okay to put hot food in the fridge. Many people believe it is not okay, and instead leave things out on the counter to cool, even for small quantities. This practice is VERY unsafe, which is why the FDA and USDA consumer links say to refrigerate hot food immediately.
In my experience fridge temperature stays elevated for hours if you add a large quantity of hot foods.
@BrandonThomson - I will reiterate **yet again** that the question here says nothing about "large quantities," and I explicitly give advice for dealing with them at the end of my answer, including ice baths. In response to a separate question about my post here, I did a more detailed experiment with a gallon of boiling water in my own home fridge and found no major food temp change. Feel free to post your own data there if you have had different results.
These are all good points, but if you're rebutting my answer, I'll note that it very specifically mentioned "a very large quantity of hot food" - as in an entire stock pot or dutch oven.
@Aaronut, I wasn't at all intending a rebuttal (or even a response) to your answer. In comments here I was responding to previous comments from Joe and Brandon Thomson. As for my answer, I was just trying to provide a comprehensive answer that considered various objections I've heard/read. I definitely agree with your point that putting lots of hot food in small fridges frequently will probably overwork them, which is the reason I mention different advice for large quantities "on a regular basis." (Btw, if anything, my answer was intended to point out flaws in the couple top rated answers.)
I've always understood the problem to be that you're heating up the refrigerator, which may be unsafe for the other food in the fridge. For the food you're cooling, it's not a problem.
Many newer refrigerators now sport a 'max cool' or 'turbo cool' option which you can activate to keep the fridge cool after you've put something hot inside. Your hot pot of stock still may not cool down fast enough to satisfy food inspectors, but it'll help, and it'll keep the rest of the food from warming up.
Without cranking out the numbers, I don't think this is safe to assume. Support for instance you prepare a pot of stock (4 gallons at or above boiling point on bottom shelf of fridge). If we immediately sequester the stock pot to its resting place, 4 gallons of water will need to cool 130 degrees before a safe temperature is attained. Methinks food in the fridge and the stock could spend upwards of an hour at unsafe temperatures.
If you want to cool food down quickly, just use a cold Bain Marie; Put cold water in the sink (for instance), add some ice, then add the pot you are trying to cool down. Stir.
You can keep on adding more ice as needed.
If it's a large pot of liquid, you can also add also float containers with ice in them in the liquid, so you can increase the amount of surface area available for heat transfer.
Beware of doing this with glass containers, as the large heat differential can cause the glass to break (it's happened to me).
@kevins : hot items in glass containers into the fridge can break, too. (I remember a pyrex 9x13 breaking when someone made Jello with only hot water)
One thing still hasn't been mentioned here, and I think it's one of the most important points:
If you need to cool a very large quantity of a very hot food - for example, a fresh pot of stock - then putting it straight into the refrigerator is akin to leaving the refrigerator door open for an extended period of time. It will cause the motor to run constantly and can actually burn it out.
Even if it doesn't burn it out, it puts a lot of strain on the mechanical parts and will almost certainly shorten the refrigerator's life span.
This is, or should, be an equal concern to food safety. For smaller food items, it's really a non-issue on both fronts.
Most modern domestic refrigerator compressors are designed to be run continuously. They have forced air cooling and run at a constant temperature
@TFD: Would you care to provide a source for that? Are you suggesting that if you left the door open overnight, your fridge would be fine in the morning?
@TFD, @Aaronut: Maybe the fridge will be fine in the morning, but it can break in a week or so of running continuosly. I remember the manual for my quite old freezer said I shouldn't use the "run continuously" mode (used for fast freezing) for more than three days, otherwise the motor can burn out. All the modern fridges and freezers I see have the same design motor. So definitely running them continuously is a Very Bad Idea™.
If you must - search the web for Embraco one of the world leaders in compressors. Check our technical spec files and you should not find any reference to duty hours, just maximum operating temperature. As long as the motor windings do not exceed this it can go continuously, and will probably last longer than in typical cycle more. Google noticed this with hard drives (electric motors too), the drives that went 24x7 lasted longer than the drives powered down every night
@TFD: I don't mean to be rude, but I am asking for facts, not vague references and analogies. Different refrigerators have different compressors, with Embraco being no more than 20% of the market share; a hard drive is not equivalent to a refrigerator; and I know for a fact that none of the refrigerators that I or my family or friends have ever owned actually runs continuously, which you would expect if it is actually known to "last longer" that way. Furthermore, many people will have older appliances and I've seen at least a few refrigerator manuals warning not to run continuously.
Earlier in life, I had the personal experience of cooking up a large batch (2 catering pans) of chicken and pasta in a cream sauce for a party. Once it was done, I put it into the basement fridge to cool overnight and keep until the party. Turns out that the fridge took so long to cool it down that the cream sauce went bad by the late morning. Not just "a little off" but completely spoiled so that it needed to be thrown out and our basement smelled horribly for a week.
As said in earlier comments, a large quantity of hot food in a fridge can take hours to cool down and can certainly spoil as quickly as overnight. There just isn’t enough cool air circulating around a large batch of food to effectively cool it all the way through in a reasonable time.
In my particular case, and for any large batch of stir-able food, the right way to cool the dish would be to stir it with an ice paddle. In a pro kitchen, an ice paddle is a huge water filled stirrer that you keep frozen. When you have a large volume of hot food that needs to be cooled, you stir it with the ice paddle until the temperature comes down enough that it is safe to put the food in the fridge. All the melted water stays contained inside the paddle so the food cools down without being watered down.
I don’t have a real ice paddle, so when I need to cool food that can be stirred I substitute a “cooler insert” for the ice paddle. Well, cooler insert probably isn’t the real word for the thing, so let me describe it. It’s a blue hard plastic container about the size and shape of a book and filled with water. The intended use it to put them in a picnic cooler to keep your food cool without getting it wet. You keep it in the freezer so it’s frozen solid and ready to use as an ice pack or, in my case, a food cooling stirrer.
In a pinch, if you need to cool a tray of food or large pot of soup, you can seal up ice in a plastic bag. Carefully put the bag in your food and stir it frequently to distribute the heat through the dish. If you don’t stir, the food away from the ice won’t cool. The ice should melt inside the bag and the food should cool nicely. Once your food is cool enough, you can pluck out the bag.
Something I've found helpful when trying to cool off large quantities of soups or stews before refrigerating or freezing: pour into relatively large, flat containers, like roasting pans, to increase the surface area. Yes, it means more pans to wash, but it can reduce the cool-down time considerably. [If I'm going to be freezing the recipe I'll put the hot food into separate containers right away, as the smaller containers will also cool down more quickly than one big vat would.]
I've used ice baths in the past as well, but I like the suggestions to drop bagged or other containerized ice into the food directly to help cool it down; I'll vote that up, and will definitely try it in future!
I don't think it's a good idea to put piping hot food directly into the fridge. The danger zone for bacterial growth in food is between 41 and 135 degrees F. Putting very hot food in the fridge may bring foods that are close-by into the danger zone as others have said.
Food has to go through the temperature danger zone (41 °F–135 °F) during the cooling process. Bacteria grow rapidly in the temperature danger zone, so the times that food can be at that temperature has to be minimized to limit bacterial growth. Important cooling temperatures and times include the following:
- Hot food must be cooled from 135 °F–70 °F within 2 hours.
- Hot food must be cooled from 70 °F–41 °F in an additional 4 hours.
- Foods at room temperature (70 °F) must be cooled to 41 °F within 4 hours.
This PDF has some good resources about cooling food and some ideas for cooling it quickly.
I have repaired my fridge freezer twice and the cause of the breakdown has been the same each time; condensation rises and becomes trapped in the thermostat area (poor design maybe?) Then the end of the fridge thermostat (bare metal) rusts. Eventually the fridge breaks down and it has been the rusty thermostat each time, caused by moisture from condensation. I never put hot food in the fridge, maybe slightly warm though. If this causes such a problem, I hate to think of the damage steaming pots of food could do!
Most people are not treating this issue scientifically, including FDA. A dangerous zone of temperatures is a dangerous zone when the food has been explored to open air. If the food is sealed in an air-tight container when it is cooked in high temperature and remain sealed after cooking, it is a different story. Just like jams in a sealed can. Most western food were cooked in an open cookware or baked in open air. It needs to be ice bathed or put in a shallow container to be stored in a refrigerator. So it can be cooled down below 41 degree in one or two hours. But, if it is chicken soup or beef stew, or other boiled oriented food (definitely not the stir-fried food), it cannot be easily transported into shallow containers and cannot be easily cooled down in one or two hours in a home refrigerator. The old grandma way to keep it air-tight and leave the entire pot in room temperature overnight will be a smart practice. During the entire preparation and cool down process keep the cookware air-tight until it can be stored in a home refrigerator and easily cooled down to below 41 degree in 1-2 hours. FDA has failed to mentioned that. Grandmothers and several thousand years of cooking experiences have testified it: to open the cover and put a hot pot of chicken soup into a home refrigerator immediately after cooking is as dangerous as open the cover and leave it on counter top over several hours. Our experiences told us if we have opened the cookware after cooking, and store it into a refrigerator, the chicken soup will be spoiled for sure. Because the bacterials enjoy the environment of the pot in a home refrigerator for many hours in the temperatures within dagerous zone. It could be as long as 8-10 hours, for there is no way to cool it down under 41 degree in a mere 1-2 hours for a hot pot of chicken soup or beef stew in a home refrigerator. I suggest FDA revisit this issue, experiment it thoroughly, and give a solid scientific amendment to current guidelines.