What is the real difference in lo mein, chow mein, mei fun, and chop suey?
Prompted by the question How to cook Lo Mein? and some of the answers regarding types of noodles, I started wondering what the real differences are in the 4 named dishes.
I know what the differences are in American Chinese restaurants and I understand that there are variations. (E.g., lo mein is usually wheat noodles while mei fun is usually fine rice noodles.) So, that is not what I'm looking for.
I would like to know, if I was in China and ordered each one of those dishes, what would I expect and what would be the difference between them? I understand that there may be variations based on region but I'm just asking for the fundamentals.
Also, did chop suey really originate in China?
Edited to clarify: I'm just asking a basic question, not for ingredients, per se. For example - Dish "X" is stir-fried vegetables (with or without meat) in sauce served with soft rice noodles.
I understand that much of the difference is in the type of noodles used and how they are prepared. However, I've always heard that much of the American-Chinese cuisine was loosely adapted and not really the same thing or possibly didn't originate in China. So, I'm just trying to find out what is authentic.
This might not help w/ the final dishes, but Serious Eats recently had a post on shopping for different types of asian noodles : http://www.seriouseats.com/2014/08/asian-noodle-shopping-guide.html
Chop Suey: tsap seui (杂碎, “miscellaneous leftovers”) was probably invented by Chinese in Taishan (Toisan), a county in Guangdong Province (Canton), the home of many early Chinese immigrants to the U.S.
It might be worth reading "On the Noodle Road: From Beijing to Rome, with Love and Pasta", as the first part of the book covers differences in noodle preparations in China (although she mentions that rice sticks aren't noodles to the Chinese)
The problem with your question is that you're kind of asking something akin to "what is the universally accepted traditional preparation for Spaghetti". While conventionally in much of the English speaking world, that refers to spaghetti and meat sauce. The word/dish itself refers to a specific style/type of noodle and could be topped with anything.
Lo Mein and Chow Mein refer to the method of preparation and not the contents ("Stirred Noodle" and "Fried Noodle" respectively). They are both often wheat based egg noodles. Lo Mein is typically cooked in a broth, whereas Chow mein, by definition will be cooked in oil. Sometimes it'll be cooked till crispy, sometimes not.
If you happen to be in some location that serves authentic Chinese food, you could order dozens of different preparations for each of the above; It could include various combinations of proteins, vegetables. There are also different types of specific noodles used (eg: the small flat ones usually called "chow mein" in north american restaurants, larger round noodles often referred to as Shanghai Style Chow Mein, etc...). If I walked into a chinese restaurant in Hong Kong and asked for "Chow Mein" in Chinese, I imagine the response would most likely be, "what would you like on it?" Generally speaking there would be some protein and one or more vegetables. This is highly dependent on what is available locally. This varies greatly in China. Hong Kong will have access to more ingredients having been an international westernized port for a long time. The rest of China is more subject to local farming/fishing. That said, Seafood is very common in Hong Kong Cuisine given that it's a port. My friend from the north grew up with a lot more pork. But now my answer is becoming less about the dishes themselves.
Mei Fun means "Rice Noodle". Again, there is no accepted universal rule for what goes into it. My mom who comes from Hong Hong cooks those noodles half a dozen different ways depending on her mood.
Chop Suey like @Ching Chong said, just means "miscellaneous leftovers" or "assorted pieces". The origin is heavily debated and full of myth (see the wiki page). It is most commonly found these days from my understanding in Americanized Chinese restaurants in the US. I don't remember seeing it in Canada for example. Wherever it started, what makes it difficult to answer as it depends on what the cook wants to put in it. Anecdotally, I'm Canadian Chinese and have eaten at Chinese restaurants all over the world since I was born and have never actually ordered this dish, so take my answer for what it's worth. :-)
*Not*. I am simply asking for the *fundamental* differences, not each idea or variation. I simply want to know what is conventional/authentic in Chinese cuisine and if it is authentic rather than adapted from American culture. Not that hard or detailed.
I'll try and add a bit more detail. But what I'm suggesting is that the concept of each of those being a "dish" is in itself a westernized concept. Just like in authentic East Indian Cuisine "curry" is a very general concept and "pasta" is in Italian cuisine.
Chop Suey can be found in restaurants in Canada. The nearby Toronto restaurant has a small Chop Suey section on the menu. I do find it to be less common though.
So what he means is authentically when you would order something like lo mein that it would only be in referance to the specific type of noodle itself, nothing else. ae.a flat rice noodle which is fried. or a spun ramen noodle that is rolled then stir boiled most likely in broth. is that somewhat close? Talon8 ?