How to configure eth0 manually?
I am not sure what you exactly mean by your question. The real manual method has been described above, but since you write you don't have DHCP, I think you rather would like to know what to do to give your box a static IP address and assign this IP address at boot time automatically. Well, here is how:
There should be a file
/etc/network/interfaces. This file is read by the Ubuntu boot scripts which in turn configure the network according to that file. If you would like to know what should / could go into that file, then please type "man interfaces".
For example, my
/etc/network/interfaceslooks like this (comments are cut out):
auto lo iface lo inet loopback auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.20.20 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 192.168.20.0 broadcast 192.168.20.255 gateway 192.168.20.250
The first two lines are standard and may already look similar on your box. You may be interested especially in the rest of the file: These lines define a static network configuration to eth0 (without DHCP), and this static configuration gets active automatically on every boot.
You don't need IP address for capturing packets in promiscuous mode (when you want to capture all traffic, not just traffic destined to your computer). You can put that interface up using command
ifconfig eth0 up
This do not assign IPv4 address to interface (IPv6 local-link address is automatically assigned, if you have IPv6 enabled).