If the sim is out and the phone has been factory reseted can I track it?
With a factory reset, there isn't much you can do. Here are some options that may be useful.
If you had the foresight to install some tracking type apps and move it to the system partition via root, those can survive a factory reset (though the preferences may be reset).
Report as stolen
If you know the IMEI, you can at least report it as stolen. The cell companies can block that phone from their network (both CDMA (non-sim) and GSM (sim) networks can do this; CDMA networks call it ESN instead of IMEI). However, I highly doubt they will help you locate it, even if they could track it.
You can find the IMEI if you kept the original packaging; usually it's on the box or on a sticker in the manuals. Again, you need the foresight to either copy the IMEI or keep the original packing materials.
Google location history
If you enabled Google Location tracking, you can view a map of the location history for the device. If the thief didn't wipe the device right away, this could give you some clues as to their whereabouts.
If you really want to track it down, you could use that location information and see if there are any security cameras in the area (ask the shops to see if you can view their security tapes). If anything turns up, give the information to the police, and don't try any heroics.
The cell companies always know the general location of devices, because they need to know which tower to send a signal out when your cell gets an incoming call. (They don't just blast every tower in the country until your phone accepts). With triangulation, they could theoretically get a rough location of the device.
If the phone has been factory reset them no.
Unless you had installed an anti theft app that survives or prevents factory resets I think you're stuck.
All you can do is have the IMEI number blocked, that way the thief wont be able to use or sell it, but your chances of getting it back are slim.